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文化慢读:雍和宫

http://www.chinesecio.com 2011年01月21日 15:14 网络孔子学院

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    雍和宫是北京地区规模最大的喇嘛寺,位于北京市东城区雍和宫大街的东侧。明代时这里原是太监的官房,清康熙三十三年(1694年)在旧址上重建雍亲王胤禛的府第,自此开始成为一处颇具规模的建筑群。后来胤禛即位,即为雍正皇帝,此府也更名为雍和宫,这里实际是特务衙署,为雍正帝秘密活动的中心。雍正十三年(1735年),雍正皇帝驾崩,灵枢就停放在宫内,因此将宫中建筑全部改换成黄琉璃瓦,以示尊贵。以后雍和宫成为清代皇帝供奉祖先的地方,有众多喇嘛常年在此为亡灵诵经。乾隆九年(1744年)正式改为喇嘛寺。 Lama Temple (Yonghe Temple; Yonghe Lamasery) is the largest and best-preserved lamasery in Beijing. It was built in 1694 during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) as the residence of the Emperor Yongzheng (the third emperor of the Qing Dynasty) before he ascended the throne. During the 9th year of Emperor Qian Long's reign (1744), the residence was completely converted into a lamasery. So this resplendent architectural complex is endowed with the style of an imperial palace, making it distinctive from others and officially renamed to the Lama Temple.
    寺院共有五进院落,主体建筑有影壁、牌坊、山门、天王殿、正殿、永佑殿、法轮殿、万福阁等。整个寺院前后风格各异,前半部疏朗开阔,后半部紧凑有序。殿阁交错,飞檐纵横,宇脊勾连,气势轩昂,并具有汉、蒙、满、藏请民族建筑风格融为一体的特色。

Lama Temple features five large halls and five courtyards with beautifully decorative archways, upturned eaves and carved details. It houses a treasury of Buddhist art, including sculptured images of gods, demons and Buddhas, as well as Tibetan-style murals.

    万福阁是宫内最辉煌的建筑,为歇山式项三层楼阁,阁内所立著名的弥勒佛像高达26米,是用一整方檀香木雕成,是中国现存大型木雕佛之一。万佛阁左右又有悬空阁道与永康、延绥二间相通,三间融汇一体,组成宏丽轩昂的建筑群。 Pavilion of Infinite Happiness (Wanfu Ge), the last main hall, is the highest hall of this temple. It is a three-storey building, accompanied by two smaller pavilions. In the main hall, a huge statue of Maitreya is positioned which the seventh Dalai presented to the Emperor Qianlong, the son of Emperor Yongzheng. The entire statue which is carved from a rare sandal tree is 26 meters (85 feet) in height and eight meters (26 feet) in diameter, with eight meters (26 feet) buried under the ground. A niche for Buddha in the assistant hall is another excellent woodcarving which is carved with ninety-nine lifelike dragons.
    雍和宫内五百罗汉山、檀木大佛和金丝楠木佛龛并称雍和宫"三绝",此外,雍和宫还以珍藏大量珍贵的宗教文物而负有盛名,北京地区重大的喇嘛教活动都在此举行。 The 500 Arhats (statues of Buddha disciples) and the huge statue of Maitreya, which is carved from a rare sandal tree, and the woodcarving with spun gold niche for Buddha are the famous three excellent features in Lama Temple.

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